CARDHU (1824 see also CARDOW
Knockando, Morayshire. Licentiehouder: John Walker & Sons Ltd. Kilmarnock. Onderdeel van Scottish Malt Distillers Ltd. (S.M.D.). De malt divisie van United Distillers Ltd. Eigendom van Guinness.
Cardow of Cardhu betekent zwarte rots en werd in 1824 gesticht door John Cumming een boer.
Het water en turf was ruim voorhanden in de nabij gelegen Mannoch Hills.
Werd aanvankelijk de whisky vooral verkocht in de directe omgeving, werd het afzet gebied met het gereed komen van de Strathspey spoorlijn veel groter.
John Cumming stierf in 1839 en zijn zoon Lewis volgde hem op.
In 1869 werd er 623 liter whisky per week gestookt.
Lewis Cumming stierf in 1872 en liet een vrouw, Elizabeth en drie jonge kinderen achter.
Elizabeth zou de distilleerderij gedurende zeventien jaar leiden.
Elizabeth Cumming huurde in 1884 een stuk grond nabij de distilleerderij en bouwde een kompleet niewe distilleerderij.
Zij gebruikte de naam Cardhu voor het produkt, maar de naam van de distilleerderij bleef Vardow.
De jaar kapaciteit was nu 1560 hectoliter.Highland Malt
In 1887 werd de kapaciteit vergroot, en weer in 1897.
Elizabeth Cumming verkocht de distilleerderij in 1892 aan John Walker & Son Ltd, te Kilmarnock voor £ 20,500.
Haar zoon John F. Cumming werd directeur bij John Walker en verantwoordlijk voor hun toenemende belangen in distilleerderijen.
Toen Buchanan - Dewar, John Walker & Sons Ltd en The Distillers Company Ltd (D.C.L.) in 1925 fuseerden werd Cardow onderdeel van Scottish Malt Distillers Ltd. (S.M.D.) de malt divisie van de D.C.L.
De distilleerderij lag stil van 1942 tot 1945.
In 1960 - 1961 werd er verbouwd, er kwamen twee ketels bij, er kwam electricteit die de stoommachine overbodig maakte die voor de energie zorgde voor de distilleerderij.
In 1971 werden de ketels omgebouwd van kolen gestookt- tot stoomverhit door middel van een met oliegestookte boiler.
Porceswater komt van de Mannoch Hills, koelwater van de Lyne Burn. De kapaciteit in nu ongeveer 1,5 miljoen liter spirit jaarlijks.
Guinness nam Arthur Bell & Sons Ltd in 1986 over en in 1987 The Distillers Company Ltd.
In 1988 werden beide groepen van bedrijven samengevoegd en de nieuwe naam werd United Distillers Limited (U.D.).
Op 12 Mei 1997 werd de fusie aangekondigd tussen Guinness en Grand Metropiltan (GrandMet).
Op 16 Oktober 1997 staakt de Fransman Bernard Arnault van L M V H zijn verzet tegen de fusie voor een afkoopsom van ƒ 800.000.000
De nieuwe naam van de gefuseerden zou aanvankelijk G M G Brands worden, maar op 22 Oktober werd bekend dat de naam Diageo zou worden, afgeleid van het Latijnse woord voor dag en het Griekse woord voor wereld.
Diageo wordt het grootste drankenconcern ter wereld, groter dan Allied Domecq en Sea-gram samen en met een omzet van 40 miljard gulden.
Op 28 Maart verkoopt Diageo het whiskymerk Dewar's en het ginmerk Bombay voor vier miljard gulden aan Bacardi Martini. Het afstoten van de twee drankenmerken was een voorwaarde die door de Amerikaanse mededingings autoriteiten was gesteld om goed-keuring te geven aan de fusie tussen Guinness en Grand Metropolitan.
Dewar heeft een omzet van ruim één miljard gulden en een marktaandeel van 10 %. Het merk in marktleider in de Verenigde Staten.
Ook de distilleerderijen Aberfeldy, Aultmore, Craigellachie en Royal Brackla worden het eigendom van Bacardi Martini.
Cardhu heeft een Mash tun van 7.2 ton, de Wash backs, acht stuks, hebben een inhoud van elk 37000 liter
Cardhu heeft zes met stoom verhitte ketels, drie Wash stills van elk 12000 liter en drie Spirit stills van elk 10,500 liter.
Juli 2003 wordt de naam van de distilleerderij veranderd in Cardow de naam die tot voor twintig jaargeleden ook werd gebruikt.
De reden hiervoor is het grote succes van de malt Cardhu en de Johnnie Walker blends, waarvan Cardhu de belangrijkste malt whisky is.
Cardhu wordt nu uitgebracht als vatted malt.
Malt whisky distilling began, and long continued, as a domestic craft practised by farmers. They made whisky from the water and barley on their land and sold it for cash in the nearest market. The early history of Cardhu follows this pattern.
The distillery takes its name from the farm of Cardow (pronounced "Car-doo") in Upper Knockando. John Cumming, the son of a hill farmer and grazier, became the tenant round about 1813, some time after his marriage. Until then he had helped his parents in looking after their farm and in the surreptitious production of whisky. Now he began to apply the knowledge acquired from them on his own account. The remote location of the farm on the uplands overlooking the Spey afforded a degree of protection from the attentions of excise officers, and the neighbouring Mannoch Hill provided an abundance of soft spring water and peat.
John Cumming's wife Ellen was a woman of spirit and enterprise, and in her capacity to thwart the surveillance of the Excise no one was equal to her. There were no inns for many miles, so officers on a visit to Knockando used to lodge at the farm. As soon as Ellen Cumming had prepared their meal and set them down at table, she would steal into the backyard to hoist a red flag over the barn. This was the sign warning smugglers to hide their distilling apparatus before the authorities searched their premises.
The product of John and Ellen Cumming's labours was carried over the Mannoch Hill to Elgin and Forres where a market was found for it. After John Cumming took out a licence in 1824, much of it was taken by horse and cart to Burghead and shipped to Leith. The opening of the Strathspey Railway in the 1860's provided a fast and economic link with Aberdeen, Perth and the South.
John Cumming died in 1839 and was succeeded by his son Lewis. The distillery was still part of the farm. There was no title to the buildings except the farm lease which expired every nineteen years. Weekly output was only 240 gallons (623 litres) in 1869.
Lewis Cumming died in 1872, leaving a widow and three young children. Mrs. Elizabeth Cumming personally supervised the 'conduct of the business for almost seventeen years. In the year she took over, a brewer was engaged and undertook to work the distillery with two other men.
Alfred Barnard, a London journalist and magazine publisher who visited the distillery in the 1880's, wrote that the buildings were "of the most straggling and primitive description and although water power existed, a great part of the work was done by manual labour. It is won-derful", he reflected, "how long this state of things existed, considering the successful business that was carried on for so many years".
In 1884 Elizabeth Cumming obtained a feu of a piece of ground close to the old buildings and built "an entirely new distillery... on the most approved plan, and with all the latest improvements and appliances". Annual capacity was increased to 0 proof gallons (1,560 hectolitres). Barnard was told that "the new make had been submitted to competent judges, who pronounced it to be similar in character to that made at the old distillery, which is of the thickest and richest description, and admirably adapted for blending purposes".
Mrs. Cumming used the unregistered trade mark "Cardhu" to describe the product. The name of the distillery continued to be spelled "Cardow" for the next hundred years or so. Its capacity was increased in 1887 and again ten years later.
Mrs. dimming sold the distillery in 1893 to John Walker & Sons Ltd., Kilmarnock, for £20,500. Her son, John F. dimming, who had latterly managed it for her, was appointed a director of Walker's, with direct responsibility for their growing distillery interests. He also managed the farm for many years and, in his private capacity, was tenant of Kinermony, Aberlour, where he built up a celebrated herd of Aberdeen-Angus cattle. He was convenor of Morayshire County Council from 1920 to 1929.
A trade journal stated in 1924 that the distillery was the only one in the Speyside district to omit the use of the suffix "Glen-livet" in the description of its product. There was another unique feature: the furnaces of its two larger stills were fired by "oil and steam pressure on the jet system". The main sources of power were a horizontal steam engine of 32 h.p. and a Vickers-Potter semi-diesel engine of 25 h.p. A water wheel drove the switching apparatus in the tunroom, and a Crompton dynamo supplied electricity for the entire works, the manager's house and the workmen's cottages. "It is hardly necessary to add (the paper commented) that electric light in country cottages is extremely rare, and the privilege is greatly appreciated."
As a result of the merger between Buchanan-Dewar Ltd., The Distillers Company Limited and John Walker & Sons Ltd., the distillery was transferred to Scottish Malt Distillers Ltd., a DCL subsidiary, in 1930. John Walker kept the distiller's licence.
The distillery was silent from 1942 to 1945, owing to war-time restrictions on the use of barley for distilling. When it reopened all incoming supplies came by rail to Knockando Station, where they were loaded on to the distillery's two eight-ton lorries. Deliveries of coal and barley were later undertaken by road haulage contractors, but whisky continued to be despatched by rail until 1967, a year before the Strathspey line closed.
A major exercise in replanning the entire distillery took place in 1960-61 when the stillhouse, mash-house and tun-room were rebuilt. The object was to install equipment that would result in improved convenience and economy of operation, without prejudice to the character of the make. The steam engine was replaced by electric power from the national grid, the number of stills was increased from four to six and their coal-burning furnaces, previously fired by manual labour, were converted to mechanical stoking. The stills were converted to internal heating by steam from an oil-fired boiler in 1971.
The site of the distillery occupies 8 acres (1/4 hectares). Process water is piped from springs on the Mannoch Hill or is collected from the Lyne Burn near the source and piped to a storage cistern near the distillery. Cooling water is supplied by the overflow of the Lyne Burn, or by surface water on the Mannoch Hill, fed to the main distillery dam. All of these sources are owned by Scottish Malt Distillers Ltd. The company also owns 16 houses for occupation by employees.
The farm covers about 150 acres (60 hectares). It is owned by Knockando Estates and is rented and managed by SMD. The main products are barley, sheep and beef cattle.
The licensed distillers are John Walker & Sons Ltd., Kilmarnock, blenders of Johnnie Walker Scotch Whisky. They bottle the distillery make as Cardhu Highland Malt Whisky. The name of the distillery was changed from Cardow to Cardhu in 1981.
It would be wrong to go down the road of thinking that Cardhu malt is only a small percentage of the new product.
It is mainly Cardhu with some whiskies of a similar profile added in.
The move from a single malt to a vatted version will anger purists, but is not the first time that such a move has been made, and Diageo says that it will not be the last.
The comapny admits that if this move is a succes, it will consider doing the same with other malts, though not with the likes of Oban or Lagavulin.
Dave Broom, said that he onderstood Diageo's logic. I have some reservations but if handled properly then it's not immensely damaging, he says.
Glenfiddich has done much the same for years. In all probability other distillers have been waiting for the precedent to be set.
And here's my fear - will every firm be as careful as Diageo has been explaining precisely what has happened to Cardhu to consumers?. I have my doubts'.
'Diageo heeft de vrede getekend in het whiskyconflict met de concurenten in de Schotse whiskyindustrie. Het zal zijn pure malt-whisky Cardhu niet in dezelfde fles en met hetzelfde label verkopen als de single malt.
Schotse whiskyproducenten vonden dat Diageo de reputatie van de sector op het spel zette. Single malts komen van één distilleerderij, pure malts van verschillende.
Diageo has announced that its 2005 Annual Rare Malts Selection will be the last.
The collection will consist of four cask strenght single malts from closed distilleries; Glen Mhor 28 years old, Millburn 35 years old, Glendullan 26 years old and Linkwood 30 years old.
Dr. Nicholas Morgan, global malts marketing director commented: 'As the Special Releases are now well established, it makes less sence to continue selecting and promoting a parallel series of Rare Malts with his own separate indentity'.
In future, all premium and rare whiskies will be made available in the annual Special Releases series.
Diageo launches Cardhu whisky expression
Diageo is to add another expression to its Cardhu single malt scotch brand.
Cardhu Amber Rock has been "double matured" in toasted American oak casks and it does not carry an age statement.
Official tasting notes announce that "the classic Cardhu notes of citrus and honey are deepened by fruit, spice and sweetness: superbly balanced and well-paced, with consistent intensity and texture and a tasteful mingling of silky tannins and clean, fresh vanilla flavours and aromas."
Master blender Dr Matthew Crow said: "The Bourbon nuances that develop from the second maturation in toasted casks seasoned with bourbon whiskey add an even greater silkiness and roundness to the already balanced and delicious Cardhu, bringing vanilla and spice notes along with hints of oak. We are very pleased with how this has turned out."
Amber Rock joins the family of Speyside single malt Scotch whiskies, which was recently expanded with the addition of 15 and 18 year old expressions.
The new expression will be available in France and then Belgium from spring 2014, and more widely in Western Europe [UK, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Greece & Netherlands] from late summer onwards. The launch will be supported by in-store publicity, advertising and promotion through digital channels.
Nik Keane, Diageo's global brand director for malt whiskies said: "Western Europe remains a major market for our single malts, including Cardhu.
"We are excited and confident that this very original new variant will appeal both to existing Cardhu drinkers and to whisky drinkers new to the category or the brand."
The name Cardhu means "black rock" in the Gaelic language. RRP in the UK is £41
Diageo releases Cardhu Gold Reserve
Diageo has lengthened its Cardhu single malt line of expressions with Gold Reserve.
The Speyside malt follows Cardhu Amber Rock, which launched earlier this year, is priced at £35 per bottle and also comes as part of a gift pack priced at £55.
The new malt and pack is available in selected markets, with an emphasis on Europe.
According to Diageo, Maureen Robinson, master blender of Cardhu Gold, has collaborated with three 'hosting experts' for the pack.
A fig-scented candle, gold-marbled chocolates and cocktail recipes are said to work in harmony with the new 40% abv whisky.
Former Calooh Callay bar manager and Diageo UK whisky ambassador Andrea Montague, created Honeyed Gold and Golden Delicious cocktails, the recipes of which are listed in the Cardhu Gold Reserve pack.
Robinson said: "Carefully crafted in hand-picked toasted oak casks, this single malt has a warm toffee and fruity finish". Cardhu has a long tradition of creating generously flavoured malts and Cardhu Gold Reserve is a wonderful example of this."
CLYNELISH AND CARDHU REVAMP PLANS REVEALED